By Nathan Barton
The 2013 National Defense Authorization Act, as I write this, was hastily passed by both the House of Representatives and the Senate so that they could go “home” for Christmas. (It proves that those who question exactly what their REAL home is, and imply that it is the infernal regions, may be on the right track.)
In addition to reinforcing and expanding the powers “granted” unconstitutionally to the Department of Defense and other government agencies by recent NDAA, it has some interesting features.
One is this: “Key to the functioning of this information exchange will be the collection of “captured records.” Section 1071(g)(1), defines a captured record as “a document, audio file, video file, or other material captured during combat operations from countries, organizations, or individuals, now or once hostile to the United States.”
Nathan: This is a most interesting phrase, and is what triggers my question: just who are the enemies of the United States? Especially when the phrase “now or once hostile” is examined?
We must understand that the “United States” here refers, I believe, NOT to the fifty united States of America, but rather to their former agent, the so-called Central or Federal Government, and all of its branches.
We must also understand that “hostile” does NOT limit itself to “taking violent action against the United States” but to ANY opposition, whether violent or not, to any part of the United States, including any persons employed by it, any property owned or controlled by it, any elected or unelected officials of it, and any organization or action supported or directed by it.
That said, notice that “countries, organizations, or individuals” are included. This would obviously include “internal” and “external” – not just “foreign” but also those organizations and individuals “inside” (under the jurisdiction) of the United States. And of course, since the Fifty United States are considered under most traditional and international law as “countries,” it could include some of them.
But who or what are included? Let us look first at foreign (external) countries which actually HAVE conducted hostilities against the United States, at one time or another.
(1) United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. This is of course the very first one, since their hostile actions caused the establishment of the United States and tried to strangle it in the womb, or certainly the cradle. Of course, their hostility has continued since. Here in 2013, we are still remembering the bicentennial of the next “formal” war: commonly called “the War of 1812” by Americans and Canadians. But we must not forget other conflicts, since then, including the War of Jenkin’s Ear, the Pig War, and many other events, including the massive Nuclear Disarmament and Anti-cruise missile protests carried out by Her Majesty’s Subjects in the 1970s and 1980s. Although touted as one of our Allies, this law as passed by Congress makes its hostile nature a reason to gather information from the UK and all its organizations and individuals.
(2) Canada is of course right in there: not only because the bulk of its pre-WW2 population are the descendants of “Loyalists” or “Tories” who refused to support the United States in the 1775-1783 war and remained loyal to King George, but have continued to exhibit hostility since: the War of 1812 involved British colonial militia from Canada fighting against US forces; and as a member of the Empire and then Commonwealth, Canada continued to oppose the US in various forms. More recently, Canada harbored refugees from the US’s draft system during the Indochina War, has refused to embargo Communist Cuba, and has made it clear that the country, and many organizations and individuals in it are hostile to the US.
(3) Mexico comes next to mind, starting with the Mexican-American War of 1845-1848, and continuing through the various revolutionary periods, its alleged collusion with Imperial Germany in 1914-18, and other problems.
(4) Of course, we cannot forget the several hundred American Indian (AmerInd) nations within the fifty states, which again, by both federal and international law, are “countries” as well as organizations and persons. With VERY few exceptions (perhaps the Shoshone and maybe some of the Great Basin and California tribes like some of the Piute), these nations were once (and often still are) hostile to the United States. Of course, this might be considered “internal,” so I will address them in more detail later.
(5) France was, of course, “America’s First Ally”™ but only a few years AFTER the withdrawal of the British in 1783 from the thirteen former colonies, the so-called “Republican” French nation waged war against the United States on the oceans 1798-1800 (sometimes called the “Quasi-War”). It also occupied Mexico for several years in direct hostile action to the United States’ “Monroe Doctrine.” More recently, it disagreed with the way the Wilson government wanted American troops to fight in the Great War (1917-1918), the Vichy branch of the French Nation and its colonies in North Africa opposed US invasions in 1942 and 1943, and General, later President De Gaulle was constantly hostile to the United States from 1941 to his death decades later. Obviously, while supposedly considered an Ally, it has clearly been hostile to the United States government in the past and in many ways still is.
(6) Germany and Japan, again considered Allies today, nevertheless were hostile to the US government in the past, killing or wounding millions of Americans, and all sorts of other ugly, nasty things. Perhaps they are just biding their time… And do not forget all their allies: Italy and Serbia and the secret allies like Franco’s Spain and Peron’s Argentina.
(7) Of course, in modern times we have the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, clearly still hostile in many ways to the US. And all the countries that were once Communist and allies or under the control of the USSR, China, and the rest: a long list indeed.
(8) We must not forget about the Muslims, either. All of the Ummah, from Moroland in the Pacific clear around to Morocco on the Atlantic, starting from the Barbary Wars in the 1790s and 1800s right up to Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, Yemen, and Iran of today.
(9) Time does not permit to list all the external countries, organizations, and individuals (by the billion!) hostile in the past or today. Maybe it is easier to list those who might NOT be or have NOT been hostile. Let’s see: San Marino? Maybe. Andorra, Monaco. Iceland? Denmark? Norway? Maybe the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg? The Swiss Confederation? (Nope, sorry, remember they were hostile to new US demands for ending bank secrecy: definitely lost their non-hostile standing over that.) The Republic of Korea and the Republic of China (Taiwan)? Probably, except that the ROC is the successor of the ROC after the overthrow of the Chinese empire about 100 years ago: Boxer Rebellion and all that nastiness along the Yellow River were definitely hostile actions. Gee, there are not a lot of non-hostile external countries, organizations, or individuals, are there?
So, reluctantly (having a lot of fun) we must move to the internal front, in my next segment.